Allogeneic transplantation is the process by which stem cells of a donor person are given to another person with a genetic match. This is possible mainly among family members and has the potential of curing diseases like leukemia. The bone marrow stem cells are transplanted similarly in genetically related individuals.
Process of Transplantation
The process of transplantation is done after following many steps to prevent non-self recognition of the newly transplanted bone marrow stem cells in the body of the recipient. The body tends to rejet any foreign tissue as a reflex action whenever there is a transplantation. The allogeneic bone marrow transplant treatment in India is now possible with advancements in medical facilities and research. The process of transplantation occurs at two different levels.
1. The major transplantation requires a high dose of both radiation and chemotherapy and kills even healthy bone marrow cells so that the stem cells can grow.
2. The minor transplant is done after a low dose or chemotherapy or radiation just to create a change in bone marrow cells of a specific place.
Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation
Allogeneic refers to a different person with a genetic match necessary for transplantation. The stem cell is removed from a donor and is given to a acceptor with the partial genetic map as necessary to prevent rejection reflex of the body. The family members are found be the best fit to be a donor, but sometimes unrelated donors match after finding through National Bone Marrow registries. The best hospital for allogeneic bone marrow transplant in India is many since many medical colleges and hospitals have developed the necessary means and instruments for the transplantation.
Collection of bone marrow
There are basically two processes to collect bone marrow. The facilities are available at the best hospitals .
1. General anesthesia of the donor is done and the bone marrow is collected directly through surgery. The collected bone marrow depends on the weight of the donor and then is transplanted to the recipient.
2. The donor is given several shots of vaccine for many days. In this way, the stem cells move from bone marrow to blood. During leukapheresis blood is extracted from the donor and then stem cells are separated from WBC. The RBC is reverted back to the donor keeping stem cells which are to be given to the recipient.
Care for the patients
Proper care of patients needs to be taken as after the bone marrow transplantation surgery a patient becomes more prone to infections. Some basic measures are to be followed.
1. Paying close attention to hygiene is very necessary. A direct contact needs to be prevented by washing hands before eating and after returning from the outside.
2. Preventing respiratory infection by avoiding places where there is even the slightest chance of getting respiratory problems like polluted areas, construction sites.
3. Water safety is a grave issue in this phase and therefore one needs to drink water after absolute filtration and boiling.
4. Any change in the normal condition of the body should not be taken lightly and a doctor needs to be called immediately.
Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is considered to be a widely used treatment now and the idea of this modern treatment is growing. With improving medical technologies, one day the treatment is going to reach every hospital and offered to everyone.